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Blog posts tagged with 'polychlorinated biphenyls'

Denmark Bans PFAS From food Packaging | Wellington Laboratories Reference Standards | Greyhound Chromatography

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Denmark just became the first country to ban PFAS from food packaging

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Denmark will be the first country to ban PFAS Chemicals, which have been linked to cancer, elevated cholesterol and decreased fertility, from food packaging, starting next year.

PFAS substances, sometimes called "forever chemicals" because they don't break down in the environment, are used to repel grease and water in packaging for fatty and moist foods such as burgers and cakes.


What are PFAS chemicals, and what are they doing to our health?

"I do not want to accept the risk of harmful fluorinated substances (PFAS) migrating from the packaging and into our food. These substances represent such a health problem that we can no longer wait for the EU," Denmark's Food Minister Mogens Jensen said in a statement Monday.

PFAS chemicals are a family of potentially thousands of synthetic chemicals that are extremely persistent in the environment and in our bodies. PFAS is short for perfluoroalky and polyfluoroalkyl substances, and includes chemicals known as PFOS, PFOA and GenX.

They are all identified by signature elemental bonds of fluorine and carbon, which are extremely strong and what make it so difficult for these chemicals to disintegrate in the environment or in our bodies.

Under Denmark's new regulation, baking paper and microwave popcorn bags, for example, will be required to be manufactured without any PFAS.

"We congratulate Denmark on leading the way for healthier food and hope this will encourage similar action across the EU, the US and worldwide," said Arlene Blum of the Green Science Policy Institute and the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Berkeley.


FDA confirms PFAS chemicals are in the US food supply

"Given the potential for harm, we must ask if the convenience of water and grease resistance is worth risking our health," Blum said.

PFAS chemicals have been manufactured since the 1940s and can be found in Teflon nonstick products, stains and water repellants, paints, cleaning products, food packaging and firefighting foams.

These chemicals can easily migrate into the air, dust, food, soil and water. People can also be exposed to them through food packaging and industrial exposure.

A growing body of science has found that there are potential adverse health impacts associated with PFAS exposure, including liver damage, thyroid disease, decreased fertility, high cholesterol, obesity, hormone suppression and cancer.


In a statement, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration said that the substances were very difficult to break down in the environment, and some of them accumulate in humans and animals.

The ban covers the use of PFAS compounds in food contact materials of cardboard and paper. The Danish government said it would continue to be possible to use recycled paper and paper for food packaging, but said PFAS compounds must be separated from the food with a barrier which ensures that they don't migrate into the food.

PFOS and PFOA are the two most-studied PFAS chemicals and have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

PFOS was voluntarily phased out of production in the United States by 3M, the main manufacturer, starting in 2000. In 2006, PFOA began to be phased out as well. PFOA and PFOS are no longer manufactured or imported in the United States, but similar "replacement chemicals for PFOA and PFOS such as GenX, may be just as persistent," Susan M. Pinney, a professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Cincinnati.

The European Food Safety Agency said it is reassessing the risks PFAS pose to human health and will report on its findings in the near future.


Wellington Laboratories offer a wide range of Certified Reference Standards for Testing and Analysis of Perfluorinated Compounds.

 Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs)


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of environmental contaminants. Their unique properties create a host of analytical challenges that require the use of native and mass-labelled standards for the generation of accurate data.


The most notable PFAS include PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and Wellington currently offers multiple mass-labelled standards for these compounds to meet your analytical needs. In fact, Wellington offers a large selection of native and mass-labelled per- and poly-fluorinated compounds, including:

  •                   Perfluoroalkylcarboxylic Acids (PFCAs)
  •                   Perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFASs)
  •                   Perfluorooctanesulfonamides (FOSAs)
  •                   Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs)
  •                   Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acids (FOSAAs)
  •                   Telomer Alcohols (FTOHs)
  •                   Telomer Acids (FTAs)
  •                   Telomer Sulfonates (FTSs)
  •                   Perfluoroalkylphosphonic acids (PFAPAs)
  •                   Perfluoroalkylphosphinic acids (PFPi’s)
  •                   …and more

These solutions can be found on pages 141 – 159 of Wellington Laboratories’ current catalogue.

Progress and Developments from Wellington Laboratories in 2019/2020

  •          New PFAS Mixtures and Solutions


About Wellington Laboratories

For nearly 40 years Wellington Laboratories Inc. has been internationally recognised as a trusted source of high quality reference standard solutions for use in environmental/analytical testing and toxicological research. Wellington Laboratories offers an extensive inventory of individual certified reference standards and solution mixtures of native and mass-labelled halogenated organic compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Wellington Laboratories also offer a variety of calibration sets and support solutions designed to be used for common regulatory methods or modified in-house methods.

Wellington’s Reference Standards are used mainly in Environmental/analytical testing and toxicological research. Wellington offers an extensive inventory of individual certified reference standards and solution mixtures of native and mass-labelled halogenated organic compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated flame retardants and perfluoronated compounds. Wellington also offer a variety of calibration sets and support solutions designed to be used for common regulatory methods of modified in-house methods.

Wellington Laboratories are committed to the distribution of quality products as well as the maintenance of excellent customer service. In fact, in order to provide your customers with the best possible service, Wellington have three ISO certifications (ISO 9001:2008, ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ISO Guide 34:2009) which cover all aspects of planning, production, testing, distribution, and post-distribution service. These certifications allow Wellington Laboratories to monitor and maintain the highest level of quality and service and also allow their customers to satisfy the requirements of their own ISO certifications.

Wellington’s ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation has been certified by the Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Inc. (CALA) the scope is available for review on the CALA Directory of Accredited Laboratories (http://www.cala.ca).

Similarly, Wellington’s ISO Guide 34:2009 accreditation has been certified by ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board (ANAB), the certificate and scope are available on their website (http://anab.org/).

We are able to supply hard copies of any of the ISO certificates for yourself and your customers.

Request a C of A.


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About the Author

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Susan Massie, Marketing Director, Greyhound Chromatography and Allied Chemicals Email: sue@greyhoundchrom.com

Susan Massie is the Marketing Director for Greyhound Chromatography and Allied Chemicals, affectionately known as 'Greyhound' in our scientific community. Greyhound was founded by Susan's husband Paul Massie almost 40 years ago, Susan hasn't been in the business for all of that time but has been involved with Greyhound for over 17 years. Greyhound continues to grow, expanding into new markets and taking on the challenges of our ever changing environment. It's heartwarming to witness the world waking up to the fact that we are damaging our planet on a daily basis. Every action we take has a direct effect on our planet and the world we leave behind for future generations. Susan is passionate about climate change and is happy to work in an industry that can have a direct effect on reducing the impact of our actions on the environment. All of the team at Greyhound take our responsibilities very seriously, the products that we supply are used by the world's leading scientists and chemists as they endeavour to monitor and repair the environment. All is not lost, if we all take responsibility for our actions, from reducing our waste and reusing or recycling our material collateral we can make a difference. The internet is full of useful advice and guidance, Susan is proud to contribute to that wealth of knowledge whenever she can.

Greyhound prides itself on personal service which provides prompt, efficient, cost-effective, safe delivery of all products. Greyhound provides technical advice and distribution of Certified Reference Standards and Materials, Laboratory Consumables, Solvents and Reagents across all scientific disciplines. Greyhound Chromatography offers over 1 Million products from its UK warehouse. The team at Greyhound are proud to support the work of the world's leading scientists and chemists as they challenge the abuse of our planet and try to make a difference to the world we leave behind for our ancestors.

You can view Susan's Linked In Profile here https://www.linkedin.com/in/susan-massie-79ab4121/


Are there Pesticides in Tea? | Chem Service | Greyhound Chromatography

Pesticides in your Tea?

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Tea is an enormously popular crop that has been a critical part of commerce and culture for centuries. Not only is tea the most popular drink after water across the globe, it's hugely popular in the U.S. In 2014, Americans drank about 3.6 billion gallon of tea, hot or iced, which equals about 80 billion servings, according to the Tea Association of the USA.

The segment of the population who drinks the most tea are millennials – 87 percent drink tea – meaning that its importance in the U.S. will likely only continue to grow. While more than 158 million people drink tea each day in the U.S., much of the tea is grown outside its borders. The U.S. is second only to Russia as the largest importer of tea, according to Tea USA.

If you're considering getting into tea farming, you're curious about the pests on plantations or you want to know which chemicals are in your tea cup, learn more about how and why pesticides are used in tea production.

Tea plantations are heaven for pests

A 2008 study from Mizoram Central University in India, which was published in the Journal of Environmental Biology, explained that the way tea is typically grown creates a great situation for pests. Tea is a perennial that is often grown in monoculture, meaning that there aren't other crops grown along with it. This, along with the climates that best facilitate tea growth have created "favorable conditions" for pests, the study explained.

Many of the world's top tea producers – China, India, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Turkey – have been growing the crop for centuries. However, most farmers have been shifting to a pest control method heavier toward using chemical pesticides to fight off these plentiful pests. Over time many tea pests have developed resistance to some pesticides and the public has become upset by the pesticides that have been commonly used, such as DDT, endosulfan, dicofol and ethion. The 2008 report noted that these concerns, along with the cost of treating tea have had an impact.

"The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea," the report explained.

Pesticide residues in common brands

Since 2008, many people have examined the amounts of pesticides that are found in the tea that actually makes it into millions of people's homes. A Canadian Food Inspection Agency study that was published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 2014 found that many pesticides not only made it into people's cupboards but also to the tea itself.

"The pesticide residues were likely transferred from tea leaves to brewed tea during the brewing process, and may therefore pose a risk to consumers," the study concludes, according to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Many of the world's most common pesticides were found in quantities less or far less than 1 part per million. Acetamiprid (also sold as Mospilan®Saniprid®; Acer®Aspilan®), chlorpyrifos,   also sold as  O.O-Diethyl-O-[3.5.6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioateDursban®TrichlorpyrphosPyrinex®, thiacloprid, also sold as (3-((6-Chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl)-2-thiazolidinylidene)cyanamide imidacloprid; also sold as Admire®Confidor®Gaucho®Merit®; 1-[(6-Chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidiniminedicofol; also sold as Kelthane (TM) ; 4.4'-Dichloro-a-[trichloromethyl]benzhydrol1.1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2.2.2-trichloroethanol methomylendosulfan sulfate; also sold as,  and carbendazim; also sold as  2-(Methoxycarbonylamino)-benzimidazoleBavistin®; Delsene®Derosal®  were among the pesticides found in brewed cups of tea from Lipton, Twinings, Tetley and Uncle Lee's Legends of China found in Canada.

The Tea Association of Canada and the respective brands defended their products and tea in general, telling the CBC that pesticides are a fact of modern agriculture and that tea is safe for consumers to drink.

The pesticides used in tea continues to be a hotly contested issue. Demand for tea is still massive around the world, but the countries that produce the largest amounts of the plant may not have the regulations in place to forbid the use of certain pesticides, such as DDT, that are banned in other parts of the world.

A recent Greenpeace study highlighted that tea time is supposed to be a time to relax and regroup, but it could be one of the riskiest moments of the day. At least, that’s according to a new study released by Greenpeace earlier this month that found a number of popular tea brands contain high doses of pesticide residues. Some teas even tested positive for the long-banned DDT.

Greenpeace published two reports looking at tea in China and in India. In both accounts, the levels of pesticide residues found in tea samples were disturbingly above the safe limits set by the World Health Organization.

China and India are the first and second largest producers of tea, respectively, and a good deal of their tea is exported internationally. It's important to note that although the United States imports almost all of its tea, tea companies are required to produce documentation that proves their compliance before being approved by the FDA and customs. Greenpeace's studies focused on China and India, which are the largest producers, as well as the largest consumers, of tea. Their food safety regulations differ wildly from those of the United States.

In 49 Indian tea samples tested, nearly 60 percent contained at least one pesticide above the safety limits set by the European Union. In 18 samples, the quantity of pesticides were “50 percent more than the maximum level.” A whopping 33 samples contained DDT. In the report on China’s teas, nearly 67 percent of samples (18 total) contained pesticides that have been previously banned under the Stockholm Convention. “Richun's Tieguanyin 803 tea [from China] showed up with 17 different kinds of pesticides!” reported Greenpeace. In total, 14 samples from China contained pesticides that are known to harm unborn children or cause genetic damage.

Brands tested were from 8 of the 11 top tea brands such as Twinings, Tata Tea, Tetley, Brooke Bond, Golden Tips, Goodricke and surprisingly, the No. 1 tea brand: Lipton. In Greenpeace’s studies, three of four Lipton samples, “contained pesticides that are banned for use on tea plants and are highly toxic. Altogether 17 different kinds of pesticides were found on the four samples.”

"As the world's best-selling tea brand, Lipton is taking advantage of China's loose pesticide control measures at the expense of its Chinese customers," Wang Jing, Greenpeace food and agriculture campaigner, told Greenpeace East Asia.

Pesticides found through the test included a number of pesticides that Greenpeace reports are a result of “complicated and confusing” regulations. For instance:

“As of May 2014, a total 248 chemical pesticides have been registered under section 9(3) of the Insecticides Act (1968) for use in India, for all crops. However, the rationale for permitting these remains far from clear; for example, the list contains Endosulfan, which has been subject to a separate comprehensive ban by decision of the High Court as of 2011.”

Pesticides found included methomyl, (also sold as S-Methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]thioacetimidate; Lannate®) an insecticide known for harming the nervous system; dicofol, (also sold as Kelthane (TM) ; 4.4'-Dichloro-a-[trichloromethyl]benzhydrol1.1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2.2.2-trichloroethanol methomyl), a chemical related to DDT; and endosulfan among many others.

To the news of the findings, Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL), one of the largest companies reported in the study, said it complies with the law. "We have internal HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) processes for all our factories,” HUL told DNA India. “Samples of raw materials and finished products are regularly sent to third-party testing laboratories. Our data does not show the presence of any unapproved chemicals and we fully comply with the Indian foods regulations as stipulated by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)."

HUL added it was looking to phase out pesticides with its suppliers by 2020.

Meanwhile, the Tea Board of India is questioning the studies, saying the trace levels of chemicals came from plantations outside the soils.

Another claim? Peter Goggi, president of the Tea Association of the United States, says the pesticides can remain in the soils long after they're used. "If you look at ag-reports and certain papers that are done, residual DDT is still there," he told AlterNet. He says that although Greenpeace may have pointed out pesticides, the report fails to prove the tea is unsafe to consume. "The tea is safe to consume and as a tea association we work in partnership work with growers and FDA to work with the entire supply."

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Pesticides in Bananas | Chem Service | Greyhound Chromatography

Why do bananas require so many pesticides?

  What's new from Chem ServiceChem Service Pesticide Catalogue Image      Chem Service General Catalogue Image


Bananas are the most popular fruit in the world. About 115 million tons of bananas are consumed each year, produced in more than 100 countries. Americans eat more bananas than any other fruit, consuming 6.4 billion bananas a year on its own, with every American each eating an average of 10 pounds per year.

Despite this massive demand for bananas, the sweet fruit cannot be grown in the U.S. The burden of supplying the global banana hunger falls on countries in the tropics, including Costa Rica, India, Brazil, Ecuador and many others. Although these countries have excellent climates for growing bananas, they also breed a variety of pests and fungi that can wreak havoc on this popular crop.

The chief of sustainable agriculture for the nonprofit organization Rainforest Alliance Chris Willie talked to NPR's All Things Considered about how the climate presents a variety of dangers to banana harvesting. He explained that the warm, humid, remote plantations are prone to the growth of an airborne fungus called Black Sigotoka. This growth can destroy an entire plantation in about a week – a costly problem for this profitable fruit.

Worms, fruit-hungry insects and tree diseases are also common problems in banana plantations, Willie told NPR. To combat these risk factors, most banana farmers and fruit companies turn to a cocktail of pesticides that can help reduce the damage from each of the banana's many enemies. Examine some the most common pesticides used on banana plantations to understand the industry better, whether as a researcher or consumer.

Chlorpyrifos - An insecticide, acaricide and miticide, chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate used on many crops throughout the world. Although formerly used as a household insecticide, the Environmental Protection Agency has placed many restrictions on the product, which has been found to have negative effects on those who use the chemical compound. Chlorpyrifos, chemically written as C9H11Cl3NO3PS, has been in use for more than 40 years and is seen by some as a smart alternative to pesticides that kill beneficial insects.

Thiabendazole – ​Thiabendazole, also known as the medications Mintezol and Tresaderm, is a fungicide and parasiticide that is used on banana planatations. Its chemical formula is C10H7N3S. Thiabendazole is the most common pesticide residue found in bananas, occuring in 48.1 percent of the bananas tested, according to the Pesticide Action Network North America. Although banana farmers use particularly high amounts of pesticides, with the Environmental Working Group putting the number at 35 pounds per acre, the residues aside from thiabendazole are particularly low because the banana peel protects the edible portion from many chemicals.

Azoxystrobin - Azoxystrobin is also a fungicide, used for a variety of produce farming. Known by commercial names including Amistar and Heritage, azoxystrobin is effective against multiple fungi such as powdery mildew, late blight, apple scab and rusts. Absorbed through the banana tree's roots it moves through the leaves to keep fungus at bay. Referred to as Methyl (E)-2-{2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy) pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate), azoxystrobin has a low toxicity to most avian, aquatic and terrestrial animals.

Imidacloprid - Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid, which acts as a neurotoxic insecticide. This chemical compound, 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine, can be used as a seed treatment or applied topically, and is effective against soil, chewing and sucking insects, according to the National Pesticide Information Center, a joint body between the EPA and Oregon State University.

Complications of pesticides in banana plantations

Although most growers see pesticide use as critical to the success of banana farming, critics point to the detrimental effects that these chemical compounds have had on animals near the plantations, such as crocodiles in Costa Rica. Fish have died in large numbers as well.  Specialists work with banana plantations to reduce the amount of pesticides used and introduced to the wild life through improper use.

Author:  Chris Boyd, Chem Service Inc  August 2014

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